MENLO PARK, Calif. (AP) - You don't have to be just male or female on
Facebook anymore. The social media giant has added a customizable
option with about 50 different terms people can use to identify their
gender as well as three preferred pronoun choices: him, her or them.
Facebook said the changes, shared with The Associated Press before
the launch on Thursday, initially cover the company's 159 million
monthly users in the U.S. and are aimed at giving people more choices in
how they describe themselves, such as androgynous, bi-gender, intersex,
gender fluid or transsexual.
"There's going to be a lot of people for whom this is going to mean
nothing, but for the few it does impact, it means the world," said
Facebook software engineer Brielle Harrison, who worked on the project
and is herself undergoing gender transformation, from male to female. On
Thursday, while watchdogging the software for any problems, she said
she was also changing her Facebook identity from Female to TransWoman.
"All too often transgender people like myself and other gender
nonconforming people are given this binary option, do you want to be
male or female? What is your gender? And it's kind of disheartening
because none of those let us tell others who we really are," she said.
"This really changes that, and for the first time I get to go to the
site and specify to all the people I know what my gender is."
Facebook, which has 1.23 billion active monthly users around the
world, also allows them to keep their gender identity private and will
continue to do so.
The Williams Institute, a think tank based at the University of
California, Los Angeles, estimates there are at least 700,000
individuals in the U.S. who identify as transgender, an umbrella term
that includes people who live as a gender different from the one
assigned to them at birth.
The change at Facebook drew dozens of appreciative postings on the
company's diversity website, although there were some pointing out the
need to change relationships beyond son and daughter, and asking for
sexual preference options.
The move by Facebook represents a basic and a yet significant form of
recognition of the nation's growing transgender rights movement, which
has been spurred by veteran activists and young people who identify as
transgender at younger ages. The Human Rights Campaign last year found
that 10 percent of the 10,000 lesbian, gay, bisexual transgender youths
it surveyed used "other" or wrote in their own gender terms.
"Over the past few years, a person's Facebook profile truly has
become their online identity, and now Facebook has taken a milestone
step to allow countless people to more honestly and accurately represent
themselves," HRC President Chad Griffin said. "Facebook's action is one
that I hope others heed in supporting individuals' multifaceted
The change to the gender selection option is seen as a major step
toward acceptance for people who don't self-identify as male or female,
but the high-profile development seemed senseless to those who believe
in two genders, no more.
"Of course Facebook is entitled to manage its wildly popular site as
it sees fit, but here is the bottom line: It's impossible to deny the
biological reality that humanity is divided into two halves - male and
female," said Jeff Johnston, an issues analyst for Focus on the Family,
an influential national religious organization based in Denver. "Those
petitioning for the change insist that there are an infinite number of
genders, but just saying it doesn't make it so. That said, we have a
great deal of compassion for those who reject their biological sex and
believe they are the opposite sex."
Masen Davis, executive director of the San Francisco-based
Transgender Law Center, said it may be hard for some people to
understand the importance of having the ability to select from multiple
genders online. But he said many transgender people will be thrilled
with the change.
"We applaud Facebook for making it possible for people to be their authentic selves online," he said.
In the past decade, the transgender movement has become much more
organized and outspoken, demanding the kind of civil rights and respect
already sought by gay activists. During this time, the transgender
umbrella has been growing well beyond transsexuals to encompass a wide
variety of gender identities.
The move by Facebook came after years of lobbying from users, some
who started Facebook pages to petition for the change. Google+ offers
male, female and "other" as choices, but transgender advocates said
Facebook's many specific options puts the platform well ahead of any
other online community. About 1 percent of Google+ users identify as
"I love that I can choose Gender Neutral," said Debon Garrigues of
Asheville, N.C., who is transitioning from female to male. "I'm going to
change it immediately."
Garrigues also appreciated the opportunity to change pronoun preferences.
The idea of expanding gender choices percolated at Facebook for about
a year and started to come to fruition during an in-house brainstorming
four months ago, project manager Lexi Ross said.
Transgender activist Nori Herras-Castaneda, a spokeswoman for the
Billy DeFrank LGBT Community Center in San Jose, said her community has
been waiting for this to happen for a long time.
"We always talk about how gender is a spectrum," she said. "I can see a lot of people being extremely happy about this."
At this point, Facebook targets advertising according to male or
female genders. For those who change to something neutral, ads will be
targeted based on the pronoun they select for themselves. Unlike
getting engaged or married, changing gender is not registered as a "life
event" on the site and won't post on timelines. Therefore, Facebook
said advertisers cannot target ads to those who declare themselves
transgender or recently changed their gender.
Users also can select "neither" or "other" and separately indicate whether they want to be referred to as he, she or they.
Facebook came up with its range of terms after consulting with
leading gay and transgender activists, and the company plans to continue
working with them. Facebook started the options in the U.S. and plans
to take it global after working with activists abroad to come up with
terms appropriate in other countries.
Herras-Castaneda said she did expect some anger.
"Any time the transgender community makes advances, there is
backlash, and this is a very big advance, so yes, we'll face some
problems, no doubt," she said.
At Facebook, staffers said the expanded options were never questioned, from CEO Mark Zuckerberg on down.
"Really, there was no debate within Facebook about the social
implications at all," said Alex Schultz, director of growth. "It was
simple: Not allowing people to express something so fundamental is not
really cool so we did something. Hopefully a more open and connected
world will, by extension, make this a more understanding and tolerant
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